The Mausoleum of the Yellow Emperor

The Mausoleum of the Yellow Emperor is located in Qiaoshan Mountain in the north of Huangling County, Shaanxi Province.The name of the Yellow Emperor was Xuan Yuan, who was said to be the chieftain of the clan tribe in remote ancient times, and is esteemed as the ancestor of the Huaxia nation. The mausoleum was said to be built as a sacrificial altar by Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty (206BC-220AD), who went by the place on a punitive expedition to Shuofang. It was repaired in the following dynasties without exception.

Now the Mausoleum of the Yellow Emperor is 3.6 meters high with a circumference of 48 meters. In front of the grave stands a stele pavilion, sheltering t he Qiaoling Dragon-Carriage Stele and The Qiaoling Stele of Old Xuan Yuan Yellow Emperor. It was establish ed by Shaanxi imperial inspector Bi Ruan in the 41st year (1776) of the Qianlong reign. To the south of the mausoleum, there is the divine estrade of Han Emperor Wudi, by the side of which stands a stone stele recording the historical anecdotes of Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty when he constructed the estrade and prayed to the God here. The Yellow Emperor Temple is at the foot of the mountain, where stand the buildings s uch as the temple gate and ha
ls . There is also a luxuriant forest of old cypresses that keep out the sunlight. There stands a tree of 19 meters tall with a 10-meter-long circumference. It is said that the so-called Cypress Champion was planted by Emperor Wudi in person.

Hanyangling (Mausoleum of Western Han Emperor Liu Qi)

The Mausoleum of the Western Han Emperor, Liu Qi, is located at Zhanjiawan Village, about 20 kilometers (12 miles) north of Xian City, Shaanxi Province. It is a joint tomb of Liu Qi, a notable emperor of the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-220AD), and his empress, Empress Wang. It was built in the year 153 AD and covers an area of 20 square kilometers (4,942 acres). It is a magnificent and abundant cultural relic, comprising the emperor’s tomb, empress’ tomb, the south and north burial pits, ceremonial site, human sacrifice graveyard and criminals’ cemetery. The mausoleum is neatly arranged, centered with the emperor’s tomb, revealing the strict hierarchical social structure. The Outside Pits Exhibition Hall was opened in 2006 and is the first underground museum in China.

The Famen Temple

In China, many temples house treasures and artifacts, but the sheer quantity and quality of treasures in the Famen Temple is rare. Situated in Famen Town of Fufeng County, about 120 kilometers (about 74.57 miles) west of Xian, Famen Temple is renowned for storing the veritable Finger Bone of the Sakyamuni Buddha.Famen Temple was established in the Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220), for carrying forward Buddhism. The most representative structures in the temple are the Famen Temple Pagoda and Famen Temple Museum.

Due to the appropriate collection and further expounding of the cultural connotations of the treasures to the public, the Famen Temple Museum was established in 1987, which includes most of the precious treasures from the Tang Dynasty removed from Underground Palace, including gold and silverware, colored glaze ware, porcelain and silks. Owing to more and more tourists and their curiosity to the relics, two new exhibition halls were established in 2000. The exhibition area expanded from 500 square meters to 3,000 square meters, which well caters for the interest of tourists.

Nowadays, Famen Temple, which is the most famous Buddhist temple, plays a sovereign role in Chinese Buddhism, and appeals to tourists from all over the world.

Huaqing Hot Springs (Huaqing Chi)

 

The Huaqing Hot Springs is located about 35 kilometers east of the city of Xi’an. Historically, during the Western Zhou Dynasty the construction of the Li Palace was undertaken on this spot. In the Qin Dynasty, a stone pool was built and was given the name Lishan Hot Springs. The site was enlarged into a bigger palace during the Han Dynasty, and was renamed, the Li Palace. During the Tang Dynasty, Emperor Taizong ordered the construction of the Hot Springs Palace. Emperor Xuanzong had a walled palace built around the Lishan Mountain in the year 747. It was known as the Huaqing Palace. It also had the name Huaqing Hot Springs because of its location over the hot springs. Huaqing Hot Springs is located at the foot of the Lishan Mountain, a branch of the Qinling Range. Standing 1,256 meters high, it is covered with pines and cypress and looks very much like a dark green galloping horse from a long distance away. In ancient times, a black horse was called “Li”, and this is how it got its name, Lishan.

The Qian Mausoleum (Qianling – The Mausoleum of Wu Ze Tian)

The Tang Dynasty (618-907) is a truly fascinating period of Chinese history, not only for its high culture but also the personalities that left their mark on the epoch. Not least of these were Emperor Gao Zong and his Empress Wu Zetian . It is not surprising that they should have had impressive burials and that in view of her powerful and dominating character that the Empress should have shared her late husband’s tomb. This is the only instance of a mausoleum shared in this way and of course, Wu Zetian was the only woman to have ruled China.

The Qian Mausoleum occupies a prominent site on the summit of Liangshan Hill some 80 kilometers (50 miles) northwest of the Tang capital, Chang’an (today’s Xi’an). The design of the tomb site replicates the city of Chang’an and in accordance with tradition is on a north-south axis. The southern approach is set between two smaller hills and the way to the Emperor’s tomb is lined with stone animals as well as human figures. These include horses and ostriches, winged horses and a pair of stone lions. In all there are 124 stone sculptures and these are reminders of the fact that the Tang was very much involved with trade and diplomatic exchange with the world far beyond China’s borders as there are distinct Western Asian and Greek influences in these sculptures.

The Great Mosque

The Mosque located at the Huajue Lane in the center of the city, is the largest and one of the most important Islamic mosque in China. It’s construction started in 742, the first year of Tianbao period of the Tang dynasty, and additions were made during the Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties which makes it an ancient architectural complex.

In the Tang dynasty, Islam was introduced to China by the Arabian merchants. Many Muslim settled down in China and married Han people. The Great Mosque was constructed at that time to honor them. Since ever, several other mosques were erected across the county.

The mosque is a combination of traditional Chinese architecture and Islamic art. In Chinese style, it constructed as a series of pavilions, buildings with four courtyards between them. The wall, however, is decorated with Islamic art.

It is the only one Mosque that opens to visitors in the country. But non-Muslim visitors are not allowed to enter to the main prayer hall. The Great Mosque was added to the UNESCO Islamic Heritage List in 1985.

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